Engineering and Technology Journal Engineering and Technology Journal en-US <p>The author assigns to Engineering and Technology Journal with full title guarantee, all copyrights, rights in the nature of copyright, and all other intellectual property rights in the article throughout the world (present and future, and including all renewals, extensions, revivals, restorations and accrued rights of action). The Author represents that he/she is the author and proprietor of this Article and that this Article has not heretofore been published in any form. The Author warrants that he/she has obtained written permission and paid all fees for use of any literary or illustration material for which rights are held by others. The author agrees to hold the editor(s)/publisher harmless against any suit, demand, claim or recovery, finally sustained, by reason of any violation of proprietary right or copyright, or any unlawful matter contained in the submitted article.</p> (Mouhammed Jessam Lafta) (Mouhammed Jessam Lafta) Sun, 25 Apr 2021 18:34:18 +0000 OJS 60 Hybrid PSO-RBFNN and Proposed Algorithms of DDDWT for the Heart Disease Classification <p>This paper introduced a Particle Swarm Optimization-Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (PSO-RBFNN)-based system for heart disease detection that used the PSO algorithm to optimize RBFNN parameters. The newly developed signal digital algorithm presents the results of a new image contrast enhancement approach using Double Density Discrete Wavelet transform DDDWT for extraction of features, using adaptive DDDWT for the elimination of noise, and the use of PSO and ANN methods to classify the output from the Electrocardiogram (EGGS). It also provides identification of all techniques and MATLAB codes used to improve the processes.</p> <p>This approach merged the global search power of the PSO algorithm with the high efficiency of RBFNN's local optimums, overcome the inconsistency of the PSO algorithm and the RBFNN downside, quickly leading to a local minimum. The results show that, as compared to other approaches, the PSO-RBFNN model of heart disease diagnosis is highly accurate in detecting and predicting.</p> Ansam S. Jabbar Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Distributed Generation on a Distribution Network Voltage Sags in Baghdad City <p><em>Voltage sags are considered as one of the most detrimental power quality (PQ) disturbance due to their costly influence on sensitive loads. This paper investigates the voltage sag mitigation in distribution network following the occurrence of a fault. Two software are used in this work; the 1<sup>st</sup> is MATLAB R2017a for implementation of the Differential Evaluation (DE) algorithm to find the optimal location and size DG and while the 2<sup>nd</sup> software is CYME 7.1 for the distribution system modelling and analysis. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested by implementing it on IEEE 33-bus system, and then it is applied to Al-Masbh distribution network in Baghdad city as a case study. The paper aims to enhance voltage profile, power loss reduction, and relieve distribution lines overloading, by optimal placement of distributed generation (DG). The results indicate the efficiency of the proposed method comparing with Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA).</em></p> Ali H. Mohammed, Suad I. Shahl Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phase Transformations, Microstructure and Shape Memory Effect of NiTiAg Alloy with Different Atomic Percentages (at. % Ag) Manufactured by Casting Method <p>In this paper, shape memory alloys (SMAs) (NiTi-based) have been manufactured by casting with a different atomic percentage of a silver element (0, 1, 2 and 3 at. % Ag) using a Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) furnace. The silver element is added to the binary alloys due to its excellent properties such as (anti-corrosion, anti-bacterial and high electrical conductivity), which make these alloys using in wider applications. These alloys with different atomic percentages (Ni55Ti45Ag0, Ni55Ti44Ag1, Ni55Ti43Ag2 and Ni55Ti42Ag3) have been manufactured. The successful manufacturing process has been achieved and proved via examinations and tests. The FESEM microscopic examinations show that the silver element has been distributed uniformly and homogeneously in the NiTi matrix. Moreover, the emergence of austenite phase, martensite phase and little amount impurities. Regarding the XRD examination, showed that there is an increase in the number of peaks of Ag phase with an increase in the atomic percentage of the silver element, as well to emergence of phase (Ti2Ni) upon heating, phase (Ti 002) upon cooling, and phase (Ni4Ti3) is not desired. The starting and finishing of the phase transformations have been determined for all samples by the DSC test. The Shape Memory Effect (SME) for the alloy (Ni50Ti42Ag3) is measured to be about 89.99%.</p> Saja M. Hussein, Khansaa D. Salman, Ahmed A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Optimal H-infinity PID Model Reference Controller Design for Roll Control of a Tail-Sitter VTOL UAV <p>In this work, an optimal and robust controller based on consolidating the PID controller and H-infinity approach with the model reference control is proposed. The proposed controller is intended to accomplish a satisfactory transient response by including the reference model. A Tail-Sitter VTOL UAV system is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller. A dynamic model of the system is formulated using Euler method. To optimize the design procedure, the Black Hole Optimization (BHO) method is used as a new Calibration method. The deviation between the reference model output and system output will be minimized to obtain the required specifications. The results indicate that the proposed controller is very powerful in compensating the system parameters variations and in forcing the system output to asymptotically track the output of the reference model.</p> Ali H. Mhmood , Hazem I. Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Nb2O5-Ni Coating Prepared by DC Sputtering <p>The Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-Ni coating was processed using DC sputtering on structural steel and study characterization of composite coating SEM/EDS inspection indicated clearly perfect incorporation of Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> within the nickel rich. Increasing in surface roughness and decreasing in average diameters of particles were obtained for coated surface compared with uncoated surface from AFM analysis, in addition, microhardness test and thickness test showed that increasing of the hardness value to 163 HV for Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> - Ni composite coating compared to 132 HV for uncoated samples, the hardness for Ni coating also increasing to155 HV and the thickness for Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-Ni composite coatings increased significantly compared to uncoated samples.</p> Hiyam M. Jedy , Rana A. Anaee , Abdullah A. Abdulkarim Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of 〖ZrO〗_2 and Y_2 O_3 Deposition on Biological Behavior of Ti-Base Alloys <p>Titanium has a good ability to attach to bone and living tissue, making it a perfect material for orthopedic implants. Because of the combination of high resistance to corrosion, biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties. This work aims to study the Modifications of various base titanium implant samples producing by using powder technology (Ti-pure, Ti-45 % Ni, Ti10 % Co, and Ti-30 % Ta) by deposition of Nano Zirconia and yttria powders (70 % and 30% ). Chemical pretreatment carried out to prepare the implant surface before deposition, while the deposition process accomplished by pack cementation. The Characterizations of samples accomplished before and after the surface treatment, which includes: microstructure observation, x-ray diffraction (XRD), MTT Assay (cell viability) and MTT assay (cell adhesion). From the SEM All samples Show that Nano Zirconia and yttria were homogeneously put on the surface and fully covered it which resulted in a substantial modification in surface morphologies. From XRD patterns the peaks slightly shifted to the low angle side also amorphous behavior was observed. From MTT graphs it was found that the titanium alloys surface after pack cementation became more active after 3 days of exposure in MG-63 cells and there was a remarkable increase in cell viability and cell attachment compared with untreated samples.</p> Zainab Z. Al-Asadia , Fatimah J. Al-Hasani Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Thickness Distribution Variation in Deep Drawing of Conical Steel Products <p>This study investigates the thickness variation behavior of deep drawing conical products under the effect of different forming parameters such as die wall inclination angle, punch velocity, sheet thickness, and sheet metal type. Two types of sheet metal were used, low carbon (AISI 1008) and galvanized steel sheets, of 110 mm diameters circular blanks at 0.9 and 1.2mm thickness formed by tooling set (punch, die, and blank holder). The conical dies inclination angles were at 70ᵒ, 72ᵒ, and 74ᵒ where, the punch velocity was 100, 150, and 200 mm/min. Numerical simulation was conducted using ABAQUS 6.14 where a dynamic explicit solver was used to perform forming of conical products. The results show that maximum thinning occurs at punch nose radius region and maximum thickening in sidewall region and thinning are increased with the increasing of die sidewall angle and sheet thickness. In regard to sheet type, the Lankford coefficients r-value shows a great role in thinning behavior with respect to rolling (r-values direction). The results have shown a good agreement between experimental and numerical work with a maximum discrepancy of 5%.</p> Muhsin J. Jweeg, Adnan I. Mohammed , Mohammed S. Jabbar Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Slope Stability Analysis of Haditha Dam after Earthquake using Geo-Studio Software <p><em>The current study is designed to analyze theslope stability of Haditha damwhich is an earth-fill dam constructed on the Euphrates River in the middle-west of Iraq</em>. <em>Finite element modeling was used in the present study to analyze the combined seepage and post-earthquake slope stability of Haditha earth dam. The maximum water level of a steady seepage case was considered to evaluate seepage. - Three different water levels (maximum, normal, and minimum) were applied, and nine different equilibrium slope stability limits were used to analyze the upstream and downstream slopes of the dam with three horizontal maximum accelerations.The input data given to the software are the dam geometry and its material properties with the earthquake records in the year2019.The dam was investigated by considering the water in the reservoir to be at maximum, minimum and normal water levels in its actual design. It was concluded that the dam is on the safe side in terms of stability even though the change in the earthquake's conditions in Iraq.</em></p> Moammed K. Malik, Ibtisam R. Karim Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design, Fabrication, and Testing of an Electromechanical High-Temperature Tensile Test Machine <p>The following paper presents a developed design and manufacturing of a servo-driven Electromechanical high-temperature tensile machine with an integrated environmental chamber. The maximum load capacity is set to be 20 kn with the possibility of future upgrades. The machine is automated by a computerized system that controls the entire operation of the designed machine. It is designed to be capable for testing a variety of materials at various temperatures ranging from room temperature up to 500℃. The machine was fully controlled using automated software to control the entire operation and to provide users with a certified test report. The main component is a high-quality aluminum frame that hosts the entire setup, like a furnace, and a universal type gripping mechanism. The structure is monitored by precise measurement instrumentation and a dependable data acquisition system. The machine was validated by testing AA6063-T6 to evaluate the sophistication of the machine's functionality. The results then compared to an international standard, provided close results with a low percentage error of about 4.5% compared to international standard readings.</p> Taif A. Ghadhban, Hussain J.M Al-ALkawi, Ahmed H. Reja Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Deposition of CeO2/TCP Thin Film on Stainless Steel 316 L by RF sputtering <p>RF sputtering method was used for deposition 70wt% CeO2/TCP thin film on stainless steel 316L surface. The selection of ceria and tricalcium phosphate is according to the fact the importance of these materials in biomedical media. The produced coating was characterized by XRD, FESEM/EDS and AFM analysis, the result revealed that the obtained peaks from XRD refer to the deposited materials. When substitution of Ce was done, distorting of the lattice structure can occur suggesting certain incorporation of the cerium oxide within TCP lattice. Also, from SEM investigation uniformly homogeneous surface as a layer of (CeO2 + CaO) and TCP as sharp plate-like crystals. EDS analysis of coating confirms the presence of Ce, Ca, O and P elements, thickness was determined at 130.7 nm. The soaking in Simulation body fluid indicated the formation of layers like hydroxyapatite, which investigated by XRD and FESEM/EDS methods.</p> Hiba Anwer, Ahmed M. Al-Ghaban, Rana A. Anaee Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A New Method Using Naive Bayes And RGBD Facial Identification Based on Extracted Features from Image Pixels <p>Nowadays, life seems to have been resilient, particularly for those with physical disabilities. Recognition of AV letters is one of the critical and famously the difficult structures. This research has been developed based on the potential of the features in some applications than the statistical properties. While, these features have been resolved the lip movement for AV letters recognition, Naive Bayesian and Red green blue and depth RGBD have been adopted for visual letter identification. Naive Bayesian has 73.33% for usual recognition with three letters, each with ten frames, while RGBD classifier is 100%. Within that for this case, two scenarios were made with different forms of noise placed on the face of normal, normal + 10%, normal + 25% and normal + 75% noise. The first one trains and understands all classes, one after another. While the other is training 95 percent of RGBD and 83.3 percent for Naive Bayesian with recognition of one of the inflicted forms. RGBD identification is 100 percent for the second one, while 49.99 for the Naive Bayesian.</p> Wisam H. Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization and Mechanical Properties of the ZA-12 Hybrid Composites Reinforced with Nano Ceramic Particles <p>In this work, nanosized Boron nitride and silicon carbide reinforced ZA - 12 matrix hybrid composites were produced using stir casting technique with using of aluminum scrap (AA 2024), pure Al (electrical wires) and zinc scraps. Microstructure Observation was revealed by using scanning electron microscopy, and the analysis showed a uniform distribution of (SiC and BN) hybrid nanoparticles for the Zn-Al matrix. Also, an optical microscope was used to display the dendritic structure and reinforcement particles that dispersed uniformly in the matrix. Mechanical tests results confirmed that the hardness and the compression was increased with increasing the hybrid nanoparticle's percentage, whereas the wear rate decreased as the reinforcing materials increased. Since nanoparticles restrict dislocation movement, the mechanical properties are enhanced. The improvement ratio in hardness after addition was 26%., and in wear rate was 24% and for the compression strength the improvement was (19%).</p> Aveen K. Yawer, Niveen J. Abdulkader, Ahmed A. Zainalaadbeen Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design and FPGA Implementation of Intelligent Fault Detection in Smart Wireless Sensor Networks <p>In this paper, both the design and hardware of Fault Detection (FD) in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was implemented using FPGA NI myRIO kit, wireless temperature sensors network with small size, low cost, and low power consumption. Work data processing was performed using pattern recognition methods to detect residual generation. LabVIEW software environment was employed for system performance. In this paper. The design of the hardware circuit NI myRIO kit received temperature from the sensors. The examined system showed an ability to monitor and track any fault or fire that may occur; based on the results, if collected data is exceeded predetermined threshold, then the system is responding, a direct connection is using WIFI to process this data by LabVIEW.</p> Mohammed H. Hadi , Abbas H. Issa , Atheer A. Sabri Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design of Robust Fopi-Fopd Controller for Maglev System Using Particle Swarm Optimization <p>Magnetic Levitation System (MLS) is one of the benchmark laboratories models for designing and testing feedback control systems in the presence of the parametric uncertainties and disturbances effect. Therefore, the MLS can be regarded as a tool to study and verify a certain robust controller design. In this paper, two types of powerful control schemes are presented to control the MLS. The first controller is a robust PI-PD controller, while the other is a robust fractional order FOPI-FOPD controller which provides two extra degrees of freedom to the system. In both controller design procedures, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to find the best values of controller parameters subject to the time-domain objective function and H∞ constraints. All modeling processes including parameterization, optimization, and validation of the controllers are performed using MATLAB. The simulation results show that the MLS with robust FOPI-FOPD is faster and more stable than the MLS with robust classical PI-PD. Also, the proposed FOPI-FOPD controller gives far superior results than the PI-PD controller for disturbance rejection.</p> Salwan Y. Yousif, Mohamed J. Mohamed Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Ordinary Portland Cement on Some Properties of Pervious Geopolymer Concrete <p>In this research, a study is made on the Pervious Geopolymer Concrete (PGC), which is based on localmaterial(Metakaolin). The inclusion of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a partial substitute for Metakaolin (MK) for the production of (PGCs) has also been investigated. Pervious Geopolymer concrete was outputted from the local Metakaolin (MK), and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as a partial substitute by weight of MK and silicate of sodium (Na2SiO3) and hydroxide of sodium (NaOH) solution. All PGC samples were cured after 24 hours from casting for five hours at a degree of the temperature of 50 ° C, then the testingafter 28 days. The compressive-strength, total content of voids, the strength of bending, dry-density, and thermal-conductivity of pervious Geopolymer concrete were examined. The mechanicalresults of testing ranged from (11.03 and 2.25) to (14.3 and 2.75) MPa for compressive-strength and flexural strength respectively.</p> Wasan I. Khalіl, Qaіs J. Frayyeh , Haider Abed Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000