Engineering and Technology Journal Engineering and Technology Journal en-US <p>The author assigns to Engineering and Technology Journal with full title guarantee, all copyrights, rights in the nature of copyright, and all other intellectual property rights in the article throughout the world (present and future, and including all renewals, extensions, revivals, restorations and accrued rights of action). The Author represents that he/she is the author and proprietor of this Article and that this Article has not heretofore been published in any form. The Author warrants that he/she has obtained written permission and paid all fees for use of any literary or illustration material for which rights are held by others. The author agrees to hold the editor(s)/publisher harmless against any suit, demand, claim or recovery, finally sustained, by reason of any violation of proprietary right or copyright, or any unlawful matter contained in the submitted article.</p> (Mouhammed Jessam Lafta) (Mouhammed Jessam Lafta) Sun, 25 Jul 2021 19:59:52 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Tigris River's Stage on the Groundwater Level <p>The research studies the effect of change of the Tigris River's surface stage on groundwater movement by building a three-dimension model using GMS model for a catchment area in Baghdad city. The model is built and calibrated by using the information of 16 wells for the year 2015 . Three scenarios of river elevation stage are used when the stage elevation is maximum, average and minimum. The movement of groundwater according to the results was from the north-west to the Tigris River location. Also, the results show the velocity of groundwater in case of the minimum water surface level stage is greater than the other cases because of the high hydraulic gradient. The velocity of groundwater in layer one for all cases is very slow because of the low permeability.</p> Mustafa T. Al-Tahir, Thair S. Khayyun Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of CO2 Laser Fluence in Cladding Process on the Microstructure of Cold Rolled 0.2 % Carbon Steel <p>In this article a 1.8kW continuous wave of high power CO<sub>2</sub> laser was used to clad of a titular composition of Ni – 10 wt% Al powder on cold rolled 0.2% carbon steel substrate. The feed rate was kept constant after many preliminary claddings at approximately 11 g/min. In order to produce clads with different specific energies and interaction times, different traverse speeds were used in the range of 1.5 to 12.5 mm/s. The microstructure of substrate was changed at the heat affected zones under the variety of specific energies. The cladded coatings showed the presence of ɣ solid solution and β (NiAlFe) phases. A strong metallurgical bonding produced between the substrate and the clad coat at fluence higher than 48 J/mm2. The changing in microstructure were observed using both microscope and SEM. The microhardness was evaluated using Vickerʼs microhardness test. The microstructure of the substrate was ferrite and pearlite transformed to martensite at the region adjacent to the clad interface. It followed by a three regions can be classified, a grain growth zone (large grains of austenite/ferrite and pearlite), recrystallization zone (fine grains of austenite/ferrite and pearlite) and recovery zone (the structure has a little changes from the structure of low carbon steel). The microhardness testing result showed higher values for the clad regions compared with substrate. This study emphasize the possibility to develop a temporary new graded material.</p> Mohammed J. Kadhim, Mahdi M. Hanon, Suhair A. Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study about E-Commerce Based on Customer Behaviors <p>E-commerce is one of the new virtual technologies that make life simpler for both traders, marketers, and customers. However, the main problem for the seller was how to know customer's intentions when they enter the website. This paper proposed to predict whether customers make a purchase or not from their previous behaviors. Therefore, this paper aims to predict the intentions of users that using online -shopping. the main aim of this study is to highlight customer behaviors to predict purchases and make a compression between the works that are related to the subject of this paper to conclude and suggest the best method to predict purchasing in e-commerce treading that depends on customer behaviors.</p> Zainab N. Mohammed, Suhad M. Kadum Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Intrusion Detection System for NSL-KDD Dataset Based on Deep Learning and Recursive Feature Elimination <p>Intrusion detection system is responsible for monitoring the systems and detect attacks, whether on (host or on a network) and identifying attacks that could come to the system and cause damage to them, that’s mean an IDS prevents unauthorized access to systems by giving an alert to the administrator before causing any serious harm. As a reasonable supplement of the firewall, intrusion detection technology can assist systems to deal with offensive, the Intrusions Detection Systems (IDSs) suffers from high false positive which leads to highly bad accuracy rate. So this work is suggested to implement (IDS) by using a Recursive Feature Elimination to select features and use Deep Neural Network (DNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) for classification, the suggested model gives good results with high accuracy rate reaching 94%, DNN was used in the binary classification to classify either attack or Normal, while RNN was used in the classifications for the five classes (Normal, Dos, Probe, R2L, U2R). The system was implemented by using (NSL-KDD) dataset, which was very efficient for offline analyses systems for IDS. </p> Bilal Mohammed, Ekhlas K. Gbashi Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Pile's Number on the Behavior of Piled Raft Foundation <p>This paper introduces an experimental research on the behavior of the piled raft foundation (PRF) in sand of two states (loose and medium sand). A small model has been tested in a soil container and the vertical load was applied to the foundation through a pneumatic jack. The settlement of the foundation was measured using a displacement transducer; three sensors were attached to the pile heads to measure the axial load borne in a group by each pile by the Arduino data logger. The laboratory experiments were carried out on models of (1 pile), (1x2), (1x3), (2x3), (3 x3), (3 piles triangular), (4 piles diamond), (5 piles), and (9 pile circle), as well as to tests on an unpiled raft. Test variables were pile length, number of piles, and sand density. It is noticed that when the piles increased to nine piles in the group, the bearing capacity increased by 40%. The effect starts to increase when one pile is just placed under the raft as the bearing capacity of the piled raft increased by 3% and 7% when the pile length is 15D and, 20D, respectively. The reduction in the settlement is also observed to be smaller and no economic advantage is achieved with more increase in the number of piles. If the number of piles reaches (6) piles, the influence of the piled raft on settlement reduction disappears.</p> dheyaa AL-Allaq, Mohammed Y. Fattah, Mohanned Q. Waheed Copyright (c) 2021 Engineering and Technology Journal Sun, 25 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000